This post is part of a series on deploying Jupyterhub on OpenStack tailored at workshops, in the previous posts I showed:

The limitation of a single server setup is that it cannot scale beyond the resources available on that server, especially memory. Therefore for a workshop that requires to load large amount of data or with lots of students it is recommended to use a multi-server setup.

Fortunately Docker already provides that flexibility thanks to Docker Swarm. Docker Swarm allows to have a Docker interface that behaves like a normal single server instance but instead launches containers on a pool of servers. Therefore there are mininal changes on the Jupyterhub server.

Jupyterhub will interface with the Docker Swarm service running locally, Docker Swarm will take care of launching containers across the other nodes. Each container will launch a Jupyter Notebook server for a single user, then Jupyterhub will proxy the container port to the users. Users won't connect directly to the nodes in the Docker Swarm pool.

Setup the Jupyterhub server

Let's start from the public image already available, see just the first section "Create a Virtual Machine in OpenStack with the pre-built image" in for instructions on how to get the Jupyterhub single server running.

Setup Docker Swarm

First of all we need to have Docker accessible remotely so we need to configure it to listen on a TCP port, edit /etc/init/docker.conf and replace DOCKER_OPTS= in the start section with:

DOCKER_OPTS="-H tcp:// -H unix:///var/run/docker.sock"

Port 2375 is not open on the OpenStack configuration, so this is not a security issue.

Then we need to run 2 swarm services in Docker containers, first a distributed key-store listening on port 8500 that is needed for Swarm to store information about all the available nodes, Consul:

docker run --restart=always  -d -p 8500:8500 --name=consul progrium/consul -server -bootstrap

the manager which provides the interface to Docker Swarm:

HUB_LOCAL_IP=$(ip route get | awk 'NR==1 {print $NF}')
docker run --restart=always  -d -p 4000:4000 swarm manage -H :4000 --replication --advertise $HUB_LOCAL_IP:4000 consul://$HUB_LOCAL_IP:8500

This sets HUB_LOCAL_IP to the internal ip of the instance, then starts the Manager container.

We are running both with automatic restarting, so that they are launched again in case of failure or after reboot.

You can check if the containers are running with:

docker ps -a

and then you can check if connection works with Docker Swarm on port 4000:

docker -H :4000 ps -a

Check the Docker documentation for a more robust setup with multiple Consul services and a backup Manager.

Setup Jupyterhub

Following the work by Jess Hamrick for the compmodels Jupyterhub deployment, we can get the from and copy them into the home of the ubuntu user.

Share users home via NFS

We have now a distributed system and we need a central location to store the home folders of the users, so that even if they happen to get containers on different server, they can still access their files.

Install NFS with the package manager:

sudo apt-get install nfs-kernel-server

edit /etc/exports, add:

/home    *(rw,sync,no_root_squash)

Ports are not open in the NFS configuration.

Setup networking

Before preparing a node, create a new security group under Compute -> Access & Security and name it swarm_group.

We need to be able to have open traffic between the swarmsecgroup and the group of the Jupyterhub instance, jupyterhubsecgroup in my previous tutorial. So in the new swarmsecgroup, add this rule:

  • Add Rule
  • Rule: ALL TCP
  • Direction: Ingress
  • Remote: Security Group
  • Security Group: jupyterhubsecgroup

Add another rule replacing Ingress with Egress. Now open the jupyterhubsecgroup group and add the same 2 rules, just make sure to choose as target "Security Group" swarmsecgroup.

On the swarmsecgroup also add a Rule for SSH traffic from any source choosing CIDR and, you can disable this after having executed the configuration.

Setup the Docker Swarm nodes

Launch a plain Ubuntu instance

Launch a new instance, all it swarmnode, choose the size depending on your requirements, and then choose "Boot from image" and get Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (16.04 should work as well, but I haven't yet tested it). Remember to choose a Key Pair under Access & Security and assign the Security Group swarmsecgroup.

Temporarily add a floating IP to this instance in order to SSH into it, see my first tutorial for more details.

Setup Docker Swarm

First install Docker engine:

sudo apt update
sudo apt install apt-transport-https ca-certificates
sudo apt-key adv --keyserver hkp:// --recv-keys 58118E89F3A912897C070ADBF76221572C52609D
echo "deb ubuntu-trusty main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/docker.list 
sudo apt update
sudo apt install -y docker-engine
sudo usermod -aG docker ubuntu

Then make the same edit we did on the hub, edit /etc/init/docker.conf and replace DOCKER_OPTS= in the start section with:

DOCKER_OPTS="-H tcp:// -H unix:///var/run/docker.sock"

Restart Docker with:

sudo service docker restart

Then run the container that interfaces with Swarm:

NODE_LOCAL_IP=$(ip route get | awk 'NR==1 {print $NF}')
docker run --restart=always -d swarm join --advertise=$NODE_LOCAL_IP:2375 consul://$HUB_LOCAL_IP:8500

Copy the address of the Jupyterhub server in the HUB_LOCAL_IP variable.

Setup mounting the home filesystem

sudo apt-get install autofs

add in /etc/auto.master:

/home         /etc/auto.home

create /etc/auto.home:

echo "* $HUB_LOCAL_IP:/home/&" | sudo tee /etc/auto.home

using the internal IP of the hub.

sudo service autofs restart

verify by doing:

ls /home/ubuntu


ls /home/training01

you should see the same files that were on the Jupyterhub server.

Create users

As we are using system users and mounting the home filesystem it is important that users have the same UID on all nodes, so we are going to run on the node the same script we ran on the Jupyterhub server:


Test Jupyterhub

Login on the Jupyterhub instance with 2 or more different users, then check on the console of the Hub that the containers were launched on the swarmnode instance:

 docker -H :4000 ps -a

Create more nodes

Now that we created a fully functioning node we can clone it to create more to accomodate more users.

Create a snapshot of the node

First we need to delete all Docker containers, ssh into the swarmnode and execute:

 docker rm -f $(docker ps -a -q)

Docker has a unique identifying key, we need to remove that so that it will be regenerated by the clones.

sudo service docker stop
sudo rm /etc/docker/key.json

Then from Compute->Instances choose "Create Snapshot", call it swarmnodeimage.

Launch other nodes

Click on Launch instance->"Boot from Snapshot"->swarmnodeimage, choose the swarmnodesecgroup Security Group. Choose any number of instances you need.

Each node will need to launch the Swarm container with its own local ip, not the same as our first node. Therefore we need to use the "Post Creation"->"Direct Input" and add this script:

NODE_LOCAL_IP=$(ip route get | awk 'NR==1 {print $NF}')
docker run --restart=always -d swarm join --advertise=$NODE_LOCAL_IP:2375 consul://$HUB_LOCAL_IP:8500

HUB_LOCAL_IP is the internal network IP address of the Jupyterhub instance and NODE_LOCAL_IP will be filled with the IP of the OpenStack image just created.

See for example Jupyterhub with 3 remote Swarm nodes running containers for 4 training users:

$ docker -H :4000 ps -a
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                                     COMMAND                  CREATED              STATUS              PORTS                         NAMES
60189f208df2        zonca/jupyterhub-datascience-systemuser   "tini -- sh /srv/sing"   11 seconds ago       Up 7 seconds>8888/tcp   swarmnodes-1/jupyter-training04
1d7b05caedb1        zonca/jupyterhub-datascience-systemuser   "tini -- sh /srv/sing"   36 seconds ago       Up 32 seconds>8888/tcp   swarmnodes-2/jupyter-training03
733c5ff0a5ed        zonca/jupyterhub-datascience-systemuser   "tini -- sh /srv/sing"   58 seconds ago       Up 54 seconds>8888/tcp   swarmnodes-3/jupyter-training02
282abce201dd        zonca/jupyterhub-datascience-systemuser   "tini -- sh /srv/sing"   About a minute ago   Up About a minute>8888/tcp   swarmnodes-1/jupyter-training01
29b2d394fab9        swarm                                     "/swarm join --advert"   13 minutes ago       Up 13 minutes       2375/tcp                      swarmnodes-2/romantic_easley
8fd3d32fe849        swarm                                     "/swarm join --advert"   13 minutes ago       Up 13 minutes       2375/tcp                      swarmnodes-3/clever_mestorf
1ae073f7b78b        swarm                                     "/swarm join --advert"   13 minutes ago       Up 13 minutes       2375/tcp                      swarmnodes-1/jovial_goldwasser

Where to go from here

At this level the deployment is quite complicated, so it is probably worth automating it with an ansible playbook, that will be the subject of the next blog post, I think the result will be a simplified version of Jess Hamrick's compmodels deployment. Still, I recommend starting with a manual setup to understand how the different pieces work.


If docker -H :4000 ps -a gives the error:

Error response from daemon: No elected primary cluster manager

it means the Consul container is broken, remove it and create it again.


Thanks to Jess Hamrick for sharing the setup of her compmodel class on Github, the Jupyter team for releasing such great tools and Kevin Coakley and the rest of the SDSC Cloud team for OpenStack support and resources.